Limitations and three-step test

Under international treaties, copyright may be limited so as to allow e.g. the use of the work for illustration and teaching purposes, or in quotations. Generally, such copyright exceptions must be confined to (1) special cases where the reproduction of the work (2) does not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and (3) does not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the copyright owner. The compliance with these three conditions is checked in the “three-step-test” set out in major international copyright treaties, such as in Berne Convention Article 9(2), or in WTO TRIPS Agreement Article 13. For more, please refer to “More Info”.

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