When individual direct licensing is impractical or impossible, authors and publishers often mandate collective management organisations to manage certain rights collectively. Reproduction Rights Organisations (RROs) collect and distribute license fees on behalf of authors and publishers. Internationally, RROs are represented by their umbrella organisation, the International Federation of Reproduction Rights Organisations (IFRRO). IPA has represented the international book and journal publishing industry on the IFRRO Board since 2004.